SR article


Quick Introduction

India, officially the Republic of India, the world's seventh largest country and second most populated country with a population of over 1.2 billion citizens, is bounded by the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The two main languages spoken in India are Hindi, as Hinduism is the most common religion followed by almost 80% of the population and English due to the company rule in India, where the British East India Company temporarily ruled over parts of the Indian subcontinent. Accompanying English and Hindi are twelve other official languages and ten more unofficial languages excluding the countless dialects. Following Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism are the main religions worshiped by millions of Indians. Presently, India faces problems of poverty, corruption, malnutrition and poor health care due its large inequality between classes as well as between men and women.

Brief history

Throughout history India has been a region of  Karnataka was originally named State of Mysore, founded in 1956 and renamed in 1973. Bangalore, originally Bengaluru, is the capital of Karnataka and was founded by Kempe Gowda in 1537, who served  under the Viljayanagara Kings. Mud forts were built with the help of King Achutaraya and three towns were founded which later developed into Bangalore. In the following years the city was conquered and sold by the sultan of Bijapur, Mughals, the Kind of Mysore and so on. Rich in resources and convenient trading routes, European powers, consisting of the Dutch, British, French and Portuguese, started establishing trading posts along the coast of India in the early 17th century. The Mughal and Maratha empires disintegrated in the earth 18th century leaving weakened Indian states which were then strongly manipulated by the Europeans, through dependent Indian rulers. Following the takeover by the Europeans, Great Britain and France started to struggle for power amongst each other resulting in domestic wars, using Indian rulers as proxy. After the defeat of the French, the British empire expanded rapidly throughout India, obtaining almost full control over the entire country and expanding to other regions in Southern Asia, also known as the British Raj. Conceding the British Raj, India gained their independence in 1947 which was followed by a reorganisation of the states based on their languages and dialects in different regions by the States Reorganisation Act in 1954. This resulted in a division of 29 different states and 7 union territories throughout India.

Culture in a nutshell

Gender inequality and cultural diversity are two a widely known situations in India. India, a large and densely populated country is the birthplace of the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, which are followed by around 80% of the Indian population. However, there is a cultural disparity due to the conflicting religions which play a central role in the life of citizens in different regions. Within India Islam, Muslim and Christianity are all widely followed by various segments of the Indian population. As a result of the long history of India, in which it has been conquered, sold and taken over by several different powers, the diaspora populations with Indian ancestry, there is a large ethnic along with cultural diversity within India. Gender inequality is a part of India’s long history and still continues today. The inequality between men and women pertains health, education, economic and politics. Females are aborted selectively and have a lower life expectancy due to domestic violence, disease and malnutrition as the health of males are prioritised. Additionally, access to education remains difficult for women as opposed to men as they are generally expected to work in the agricultural sector, of which they make up 80% of the labor. Thus the literacy rates of women is significantly lower than that of males, nonetheless the majority of the rural land on which most of these women work is still owned by men. The caste system is another widely known Indian phenomena, and is the basis of educational and job reservations in India. It is the result of the fall of the Mughal era and rise of the British empire in India, and is a system of social classification, castes. It dictates the occupations a person can pursue, the social interactions one may have and the social norms based on one’s class. The system empowers social hierarchy by segregating the population into four, five including Gandhi’s, classes and restricts economic growth as it does not allow one to have higher aspirations other than what one was born into.

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