4.1 Concepts from literature

Ram Kamath

Ely, Smith & Stirling, 2013

1.Hybrid Innovation pathways

At the two ends of the spectrum of possible trajectories to sustainable systems ,are green industrialisation and grassroot innovations. Green industrialisation pathways are led by the government or large corporations. Such initiatives are top-down in nature and are driven by technology push. Grassroot movements are citizen driven movements for rural development or community interests. These initiatives are, unlike green industrialisation projects, aimed at socio-economic transformation and community development rather than profits. Hybrid innovation pathways possess characteristics of both these transition types. Hybrid initiatives target both profits and social value creation. These complex projects involve unconventional relationships and collaborations, performance parameters and financing channels.

Verbong & Geels, 2010

1.Transition pathways.

In chapter one, we introduced the concept of the multilevel perspective, regimes and niches. Radical innovations usually emerge in the niches and disrupt the regimes. In case of large systems, the pattern of disruption may be often different. Possible patterns of disruption are transformation, reconfiguration, technological substitution and de-alignment and re-alignment. Transformation is driven by the regime actors themselves in response to changes at the landscape level (Overall trends and factors such as demographic changes, oil prices, environmental concerns etc.) and external pressure, public opinion. New regimes come about through accumulation of modest changes in regime behavior. In the reconfiguration pathway, relatively well developed niche innovations are used at the regime level as add-ons or component substitutions in response to external pressure. This causes considerable changes at the regime level compared to the transformation process. Technological substitution involves niche innovations that expand into new markets and finally substitute the regime when external pressures create a window of opportunity.Major landscape pressure leads to de-alignment of the regime, emergence of various innovations and experimentation and finally, the establishment of a dominant design.

Mark Ernst

1.Hybrid Innovation pathways

Hybrid innovation pathways are a combination of green industrialisation pathways and grassroot innovations pathways. The first is normally more a top-down approach and technology driven, the latter is driven by the citizens or communities. A sustainable transition in the waste system will only be achieved with a hybrid pathway, involving the waste collecting companies, the municipality and the government on one side, and the people from Texel on the other. A hybrid pathway combines both profits for the companies as well as added social value for the citizens. Only in this way all parties can be satisfied and a transition can be achieved. 

2. Transition pathways

Radical innovations emerge in niches, break through and overthrow the existing regime. There are four pathways how this transition can happen: transformation, reconfiguration, technological substitution and de-alignment & re-alignment.  All of them have a different impact on the existing regime and system.

Janne de Hoop

1. Hybrid pathways

Within an hybrid pathway a combination is made between a bottom up approach and the top-down approach. When combining these two levels a link can be made between global and local. Hybrid pathways propose a new political approach and the combination with cooperative motivations for green enterprises.

2. technology forecasting

The energy system is taken as an example to set the path for transition. The hierarchy within this scenario is set. In the paper one of the policy strategies speaks of the niche system: 2) stimulate the emergence and development of radical innovations in niches. These radical innovations can cause friction but will also create a momentum towards transition. The design of a pathway in the future should leave room for change, compared to the current static system striving for a stable final solution instead of a dynamic adjustable system open for sustainability transitions. 

The transition to a more sustainable waste management system will Texel involves considerable communal benefits. This transition, however, will require significant investments and new technologies. This transition and its objectives will only be achieved through a hybrid pathway that involves the waste management firms operating in or interested in Texel, the municipality and the Dutch government on the one hand and the Texelaars and their grassroot initiatives on the other. These partnerships will inevitably involve tensions. To diminish friction, the partners will have to explore different directions to the objectives in a transparent manner in order to understand the trade-offs and implications for both parties. Partners should strive to achieve acceptable arrangements of cost and benefit distributions of new technologies and policies. Finally the municipality/Dutch government and the community in Texel must encourage and explore different means for a more sustainable waste management system. The resultant learning and experimentation will make the waste management system more dynamic and resilient. We will explore in this chapter how one technology ( Biodegradable packaging) will require the collaboration of several actors: Firms, municipality, the Dutch government and communities in Texel.

The waste management system in Texel has considerable sunk costs and a regime has formed. There is external pressure on the system through public opinion and environmental concerns from the Texelaars, Dutch government and the EU. This external pressure may cause a sustainable transition through one of the four pathways. The chosen pathway will depend on the intensity of external pressure and the promise and acceptability of the novel technologies. At this moment, the possible pathways seem to be transformation or reconfiguration but by 2065, we may very well find, with growing environmental concerns on a global level, that a technology substitution or de-alignment and re-alignment has occured.We will prsent two possible pathways to achieve a transition in this chapter