The first research steps started with chapter 0 in which the sub-system Sustain Lifestyles is introduced. The choice for this sub-system was based on two considerations: (1) the sub-system could function as an overarching umbrella for the other sub-system because of the many contact points it has with other subsystems. (2) the focus for this sub-system will be on the societal aspects rather than the technical aspects which forces us to leave our (technical) comfort zone. Next to that definitions of ‘sustainability’ and ‘lifestyle’ are addressed and the lifestyle of the Texelaar is visualized in an infographic that gives an overview of daily activities.
Chapter 1 is about the transition towards a sustainable island, addresses the current sub-system, the future sub-system and the sustainability challenge to sustain lifestyles. This chapter provides a base for the following chapters and is formed by an iterative process.
In the current sub-system three types of lifestyles are identified: the tourist, the profit-local and the planet-local. There is a clear distinction between the lifestyles of tourists and locals. However the distinction between the planet-local and profit-local is less strict. To explain the differences between these groups, these are placed into the model on target groups of sustainability of Van Hall and the adoption-model of Moore. In reality most people of Texel will be somewhere in between these two extremes, for this research it is assumed that there is a division in two groups of locals with a distinct focus. In the future sub-system the three lifestyles will also exist, however the tourist and profit-local should move towards the lifestyle of the planet-local.
In order to achieve more sustainable lifestyles in Texel, a transition is needed within the lifestyles. A framework is set up in which the current and future lifestyles are ‘measured’ against the parameters ‘sustainable lifestyle’ and ‘consciousness of sustainable Texel’. This led to the following problem statement: “In Texels’ society there is a disparity within the lifestyles of the tourist, profit-local and planet-local on both the sustainability of these lifestyles and the consciousness of a sustainable Texel. A gradual shift in these lifestyles is needed in order to move towards a sustainable and 100% self-sufficient Texel in 2065.” The interactions between the groups are very important to move towards a self-sufficient Texel in 2065. The presumed scenario for this interaction is that the planet-local, can been seen as early-adopters, influences the conservative profit-local and in turn the profit-local influences the tourist. In order to make this change between 2015 and 2065 Strategic Niche Management is applied on the system of Texel and the sub-system of sustain lifestyles. The planet-local will be the most important actor within the niches. Ultimately this leads to the following research question: “How could the interactions between the lifestyles of the planet-local and the profit-local in Texels’ society be positively influenced in such a way that they contribute to the gradual shift to a sustainable and 100% self-sufficient Texel in 2065?”
In the second chapter the meaning of sustainable presence is analyzed. The YUTPA framework is applied to investigate the appearance and trust of the local people in Texel. It addresses the dimensions Time, Place, Action and Relation. To describe daily life in the current sub-system the YUTPA framework is applied on both the planet-local and the profit-local. To describe daily life in the future sub-system the design space is extracted from a comparison of the YUTPA framework from the perspectives of the planet-local and the profit-local; this design space is a lever for change from the current to the future situation. The design space lies mostly in the Time dimensions, for the aspects of ‘Making moments to signify’, ‘Synchronizing performance’ and ‘Duration of engagement’. Besides that the design space lies in the Relation dimension for the aspect of ‘Role’ and in the Action dimensions for the aspect of ‘Negotiation’.
This outcomes of the YUTPA framework and the design space is used for a redefinition of the design gap, since this YUTPA framework could be used to find solutions that fit both the planet-local and the profit-local. The previously mentioned dimensions for the design space were further detailed and a difference in the nature of these dimensions from both groups was found. Based on these dimensions they should steer towards a cooperative direction to move towards a 100% self-sufficient Texel in 2065. Furthermore it was identified that the the planet-local aligns with an eudaimonic well-being lifestyle and the profit-local aligns with a hedonic well-being lifestyle.
Chapter 3, which is about the meaning of “made by people and action”, investigates the sustainable initiatives in Texel. Since sustainable lifestyle is a broad topic and there are no specific initiatives that are defined as ‘lifestyle changes’ within this sub-system. However there are 24 sustainable initiatives within the sub-systems food, waste, energy, transport and tourism, which, when investigated, are strongly related to lifestyle. Additionally the sustainable initiatives were further analyzed and their current state was identified (ranging from idea phase to pilot phase to expansion phase to established phase). Several conclusions could be drawn from this analysis, namely that most initiatives are conducted by the planet-local-producers and the municipality, that the sub-systems food and energy have the most initiated projects. The last bit of information was that most initiatives are in the established phase. This suggests that at this moment there is are no new sustainable initiatives, which could be caused by a lack of funds. An opportunity is identified in the role of an intermediary actor for the municipality of Texel to interconnect sustainable initiatives by means of niche management.
Besides the sustainable initiatives within Texel, there are also wider developments which are analyzed, in order to find overarching inspiring sustainable initiatives or trends that could be applied for Texel, this could be useful since currently there is a lack of new sustainable initiatives in Texel. From the cases in Samsø and the refugees in Amersfoort, it could be concluded that one of the key elements is communication. This observation is strengthened by the case of Urgenda in Texel, who did not succeed in collaborating with the Texelaars. This is also an important lesson for us as a group of students how to act and communicate with the Texelaars during the bubble week.
Chapter 4 explores the different pathways to develop a 100% self-sufficient Texel in 2065. First several innovative technological solutions are explored that could connect the current state to the desired future.These technologies include 3D-printing, autonomous vehicles and the internet of things. In order to describe the presence in the future sub-system the way these technologies are emdedded into the culture and behaviour is looked into. This is done by exploring the prevailing technologies and their interrelation with each other, with the daily life on Texel, and with the rules and regulations. Finally two different pathways are sketched out, which can be followed in order to realize sustainable lifestyles in Texel in 2065, namely a transformation pathway and a re/de-alignment pathway. Because of the broad nature of a lifestyle, the decision was made tofocus on food, since this is a repeating and central aspect in all lifestyles and interactions. To move towards a 100% self-sufficient Texel the local food production will become relevant, therefore the goals for the pathways in 2065 is formulated as 100% local food.
The transformation pathway focusses on the short-term and hedonic approach that raises awareness of the Profit-Locals and ‘pushes’ them towards a more sustainable lifestyle. Economic instruments are needed to steer towards the desired direction, because there is no intrinsic motivation for this. The existing label “Echt Texels Product” (ETP) could be financially stimulated and an incentives program should specifically address local customers. By consuming EPT products points could be collected that give reduction on other projects/activities in Texel, e.g. for public transport or musea.
The re/de-alignment pathway focusses on a long-term and eudaimonic approach of the planet-locals, these are regarded as early adopters. Communicative instruments are needed to move towards the desired direction, that stimulates and builds upon the existing intrinsic motivation. Social interactions for further discussion and execution of sustainable initiatives are needed to spread the word. By starting with a campaign and building a strong netwerk, later more radical changes could emerge. The food that is possible to produce locally will be produced locally, this will be integrated within a smart fridge so that no food is wasted and food will automatically be transported. The food that is not possible to produce locally will be 3D-printed.
These two pathways are plausible progressions from current technologies. It is not possible to say with any certainty if these technologies are realistic or not, as the future might develop in unsuspected ways. Both pathways move from the current situation to the situation in 2065 whereas the food is 100% local. Since lifestyle contains more aspects than solely food, these type of pathways could be developed for 100% local transport, leisure, energy, clothes, hygiene, education, work, etc.
Furthermore four interviews have been conducted with experts from the different lifestyle groups in Texel. The goal of the interview was on the one hand to get their view on the proposed framework of the lifestyles on Texel, the goal of 100% self-sufficiency on Texel in 2065 and sustainability on Texel in general. On the other hand it was used to verify the assumptions made for the YUTPA framework. The planet-local interviewee is Nienke Bloksma, whomoved to Texel in 1987. Currently she is following a program on the energy-neutral renovation of houses. She worked ten years at Stichting Duurzaam Texel as director and initiated many sustainable projects on Texel. The profit-local interviewee is Wim Ploeg, he was born and raised on Texel and therefore has a strong connection with the island. He is president of keeping company Snelstart, which is located on Texel but has many clients outside of Texel. He came up with the differences between early adopters and the conservative ones and noted the strong relation everyone has with the island they live on. And that, besides that, tuning still seems a difficult target to reach. Another profit-local interviewee is Koen van Swam, he works at Stichting Noordzeeboerderij. Unfortunately it appeared that there was no direct relation between Texel and this organization, apart from the location for experiments, which that was assigned to them. The tourist interviewee is Wouter de Waal, director of VVV Texel. He could be seen as a representative of the Texel leisure industry and had a lot to tell about local tourism and therefore probably about the lifestyles of tourists.
The main findings of the research:
- The research was based on the division in planet-local, profit-local and tourist, in which most attention was given to the two local groups. During the research and interviews it was discovered out that the groups are very intertwined.
- The interactions between different lifestyles is very important.
- At this moment the Texelaars do not have many sustainable initiatives, as could be learned from the research and lectures (especially the one from Urgenda), and the interviews we could conclude that the majority of the Texelaars is not open for sustainable initiatives from outside Texel (the mainlanders). So there needs to be an intrinsic motivation by the Texelaars to move towards a 100% self-sufficient Texel. The feeling of independence could be of relevance, both for the emergence and execution of the sustainable initiatives.
- From the YUTPA model we found that the design space between the planet-local and the profit-local lies in the ‘Making moments to signify’ (time), ‘Synchronizing performance’(time), ‘Duration of engagement’ (time), ‘Role’ (relation) and ‘Negotiation’(action).
- Communication is a key element for starting and executing sustainable initiatives within Texel, especially since Texelaars are not very open to initiatives from outside Texel.
- After the analysis of the subsystem lifestyle we conclude that the change lever for a more sustainable lifestyle can be found in the stimulation of 100% locally produced items and services by using either economic instruments (an incentive-model or an transportation-tax) or communicative instruments (campaign and network). The first takes form of a transformation pathways, the latter of a re/de-alignment pathway.
Issues that are still unknown and need to be addressed during the bubble week on Texel:
- What is the perception of the future of the current Texelaars and entrepreneurs regarding the development of their ‘subsystem’?
- Why are hopeful initiatives cancelled in the last few years? Is there still some momentum to create a sustainable Texel?
- What is the custom base of locally produced goods?
- How could people from outside Texel (like us, and other mainlanders) start sustainable initiatives on Texel without the Texelaars having the feeling that they are ignored? In other words, how could the Texelaar play a central role in the projects initiated by people from outside Texel?
- How could the people from Texel motivated to start their own sustainable initiatives? How could the intrinsic motivation change to a sustainable focus?
- How could the strong feeling of independence (the island feeling) of the Texelaars positively contribute to move towards a 100% self-sufficient Texel in 2065?
- Are there other aspects next to the independence (island) feeling, e.g. (hidden) cultural values or motivations, that contribute to the unwillingness to cooperate with sustainable initiatives from mainlanders? Could this unwillingness be transformed into willingness?
- What type of pathway for change is preferred by the Texelaars? What pathway suits the culture of the Texelaar best?